Translated by George Long
Search The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius
22. Hasten to examine thy own ruling faculty and that of the universe
and that of thy neighbour: thy own that thou mayest make it just: and that
of the universe, that thou mayest remember of what thou art a part; and
that of thy neighbour, that thou mayest know whether he has acted ignorantly
or with knowledge, and that thou mayest also consider that his ruling faculty
23. As thou thyself art a component part of a social system, so let
every act of thine be a component part of social life. Whatever act of
thine then has no reference either immediately or remotely to a social
end, this tears asunder thy life, and does not allow it to be one, and
it is of the nature of a mutiny, just as when in a popular assembly a man
acting by himself stands apart from the general agreement.
24. Quarrels of little children and their sports, and poor spirits
carrying about dead bodies, such is everything; and so what is exhibited
in the representation of the mansions of the dead strikes our eyes more
25. Examine into the quality of the form of an object, and detach it
altogether from its material part, and then contemplate it; then determine
the time, the longest which a thing of this peculiar form is naturally
made to endure.
27. When another blames thee or hates thee, or when men say about thee
anything injurious, approach their poor souls, penetrate within, and see
what kind of men they are. Thou wilt discover that there is no reason to
take any trouble that these men may have this or that opinion about thee.
friends. And the gods too aid them in all ways, by dreams, by signs, towards
the attainment of those things on which they set a value.
28. The periodic movements of the universe are the same, up and down
for every separate effect, and if this is so, be thou content with that
which is the result of its activity; or it puts itself in motion once,
and everything else comes by way of sequence in a manner; or indivisible
elements are the origin of all things.- In a word, if there is a god, all
is well; and if chance rules, do not thou also be governed by
29. The universal cause is like a winter torrent: it carries everything
along with it. But how worthless are all these poor people who are engaged
in matters political, and, as they suppose, are playing the philosopher!
in motion, if it is in thy power, and do not look about thee to see if
any one will observe it; nor yet expect Plato's Republic: but be content
if the smallest thing goes on well, and consider such an event to be no
small matter. For who can change men's opinions? And without a change of
opinions what else is there than the slavery of men who groan while they
pretend to obey? Come now and tell me of Alexander and Philip and Demetrius
of Phalerum. They themselves shall judge whether they discovered what the
common nature required, and trained themselves accordingly. But if they
acted like tragedy heroes, no one has condemned me to imitate them. Simple
and modest is the work of philosophy. Draw me not aside to indolence and
30. Look down from above on the countless herds of men and their countless
solemnities, and the infinitely varied voyagings in storms and calms, and
consider, too, the life lived by others in olden time, and the life of
those who will live after thee, and the life now lived among barbarous
nations, and how many know not even thy name, and how many will soon forget
it, and how they who perhaps now are praising thee will very soon blame
nor anything else.
31. Let there be freedom from perturbations with respect to the things
which come from the external cause; and let there be justice in the things
done by virtue of the internal cause, that is, let there be movement and
32. Thou canst remove out of the way many useless things among those
which disturb thee, for they lie entirely in thy opinion; and thou wilt
then gain for thyself ample space by comprehending the whole universe in
thy mind, and by contemplating the eternity of time, and observing the
rapid change of every several thing, how short is the time from birth to
dissolution, and the illimitable time before birth as well as the equally
boundless time after dissolution.
34. What are these men's leading principles, and about what kind of
things are they busy, and for what kind of reasons do they love and honour?
Imagine that thou seest their poor souls laid bare. When they think that
they do harm by their blame or good by their praise, what an
35. Loss is nothing else than change. But the universal nature delights
in change, and in obedience to her all things are now done well, and from
eternity have been done in like form, and will be such to time without
always will be bad, and that no power has ever been found in so many gods
to rectify these things, but the world has been condemned to be found in
never ceasing evil?
36. The rottenness of the matter which is the foundation of everything!
Water, dust, bones, filth: or again, marble rocks, the callosities of the
and purple dye, blood; and everything else is of the same kind. And that
which is of the nature of breath is also another thing of the same kind,
changing from this to that.
37. Enough of this wretched life and murmuring and apish tricks. Why
art thou disturbed? What is there new in this? What unsettles thee? Is
it the form of the thing? Look at it. Or is it the matter? Look at it.
But besides these there is nothing. Towards the gods, then, now become
at last more simple and better. It is the same whether we examine these
things for a hundred years or three.
39. Either all things proceed from one intelligent source and come
together as in one body, and the part ought not to find fault with what
is done for the benefit of the whole; or there are only atoms, and nothing
the ruling faculty, Art thou dead, art thou corrupted, art thou playing
the hypocrite, art thou become a beast, dost thou herd and feed with the
40. Either the gods have no power or they have power. If, then, they have no power, why dost thou pray to them? But if they have power, why dost thou not pray for them to give thee the faculty of not fearing any of the things which thou fearest, or of not desiring any of the things that any of these things should not happen or happen? for certainly if they can co-operate with men, they can co-operate for these purposes.
perhaps thou wilt say, the gods have placed them in thy power. Well, then,
is it not better to use what is in thy power like a free man than to desire
in a slavish and abject way what is not in thy power? And who has told
thee that the gods do not aid us even in the things which are in our power?
Begin, then, to pray for such things, and thou wilt see. One man prays
thus: How shall I be able to lie with that woman? Do thou pray thus: How
shall I not desire to lie with her? Another prays thus: How shall I be
released from this? Another prays: How shall I not desire to be released?
I not be afraid to lose him? In fine, turn thy prayers this way, and see
41. Epicurus says, In my sickness my conversation was not about my
bodily sufferings, nor, says he, did I talk on such subjects to those who
visited me; but I continued to discourse on the nature of things as before,
as go on in the poor flesh, shall be free from perturbations and maintain
its proper good. Nor did I, he says, give the physicians an opportunity
of putting on solemn looks, as if they were doing something great, but
my life went on well and happily. Do, then, the same that he did both in
sickness, if thou art sick, and in any other circumstances; for never to
desert philosophy in any events that may befall us, nor to hold trifling
talk either with an ignorant man or with one unacquainted with nature,
which thou art now doing and on the instrument by which thou doest
42.  When thou art offended with any man's shameless conduct, immediately ask thyself, Is it possible, then, that shameless men should not be in the world? It is not possible. Do not, then, require what is impossible. For this man also is one of those shameless men who must of necessity be in the world. Let the same considerations be present to thy mind in the case of the knave, and the faithless man, and of every man who does wrong in any way. For at the same time that thou dost remind thyself that it more kindly disposed towards every one individually.  It is useful to perceive this, too, immediately when the occasion arises, what virtue nature has given to man to oppose to every wrongful act. For she has given to man, as an antidote against the stupid man, mildness, and against another kind of man some other power. And in all cases it is possible for thee to correct by teaching the man who is gone astray; for every man who errs misses his...
thou wilt find that no one among those against whom thou art irritated has done anything by which thy mind could be made worse; but that which is evil to thee and harmful has its foundation only in the mind.
 And what harm is done or what is there strange, if the man who has not been instructed rather blame thyself, because thou didst not expect such a man to err in such a way. For thou hadst means given thee by thy reason to suppose that it was likely that he would commit this error, and yet thou hast forgotten and art amazed that he has erred.
 But most of all when thou blamest a man as faithless or ungrateful, turn to thyself. For the fault is manifestly would keep his promise, or when conferring thy kindness thou didst not confer it absolutely, nor yet in such way as to have received from thy very act all the profit. For what more dost thou want when thou hast done a man a service? Art thou not content that thou hast done something conformable to thy nature, and dost thou seek to be paid for it? Just as if the eye demanded a recompense for seeing, or the feet for walking. For as these members are formed for a particular purpose, and by working according to their several constitutions obtain what is their own; so also as man is formed by nature to acts of benevolence, when he has done anything benevolent or in any other way conducive to the common interest, he has acted conformably to his constitution, and he gets what is his own.