BOOK ELEVEN, 18-39
18.  If any have offended against thee, consider first: What is my relation
to men, and that we are made for one another; and in another respect, I
was made to be set over them, as a ram over the flock or a bull over the
herd. But examine the matter from first principles, from this: If all things
are not mere atoms, it is nature which orders all things: if this is so,
the inferior things exist for the sake of the superior, and these for the
sake of one another.
 Second, consider what kind of men they are at table, in bed, and
so forth: and particularly, under what compulsions in respect of opinions
they are; and as to their acts, consider with what pride they do what they
 Third, that if men do rightly what they do, we ought not to be
displeased; but if they do not right, it is plain that they do so involuntarily
and in ignorance. For as every soul is unwillingly deprived of the truth,
so also is it unwillingly deprived of the power of behaving to each man
according to his deserts. Accordingly men are pained when they are called
unjust, ungrateful, and greedy, and in a word wrong-doers to their
 Fourth, consider that thou also doest many things wrong, and that
thou art a man like others; and even if thou dost abstain from certain
faults, still thou hast the disposition to commit them, though either through
cowardice, or concern about reputation, or some such mean motive, thou
dost abstain from such faults.
 Fifth, consider that thou dost not even understand whether men
are doing wrong or not, for many things are done with a certain reference
to circumstances. And in short, a man must learn a great deal to enable
him to pass a correct judgement on another man's acts.
life is only a moment, and after a short time we are all laid out
 Seventh, that it is not men's acts which disturb us, for those
acts have their foundation in men's ruling principles, but it is our own
opinions which disturb us. Take away these opinions then, and resolve to
dismiss thy judgement about an act as if it were something grievous, and
thy anger is gone. How then shall I take away these opinions? By reflecting
that no wrongful act of another brings shame on thee: for unless that which
is shameful is alone bad, thou also must of necessity do many things wrong,
and become a robber and everything else.
 Eighth, consider how much more pain is brought on us by the anger
and vexation caused by such acts than by the acts themselves, at which
we are angry and vexed.
 Ninth, consider that a good disposition is invincible, if it be
genuine, and not an affected smile and acting a part. For what will the
most violent man do to thee, if thou continuest to be of a kind disposition
towards him, and if, as opportunity offers, thou gently admonishest him
and calmly correctest his errors at the very time when he is trying to
do thee harm, saying, Not so, my child: we are constituted by nature for
something else: I shall certainly not be injured, but thou art injuring
thyself, my child.- And show him with gentle tact and by general principles
that this is so, and that even bees do not do as he does, nor any animals
which are formed by nature to be gregarious. And thou must do this neither
with any double meaning nor in the way of reproach, but affectionately
and without any rancour in thy soul; and not as if thou wert lecturing
him, nor yet that any bystander may admire, but either when he is alone,
and if others are present...
 Remember these nine rules, as if thou hadst received them as a
gift from the Muses, and begin at last to be a man while thou livest. But
thou must equally avoid flattering men and being veied at them, for both
are unsocial and lead to harm. And let this truth be present to thee in
the excitement of anger, that to be moved by passion is not manly, but
that mildness and gentleness, as they are more agreeable to human nature,
so also are they more manly; and he who possesses these qualities possesses
strength, nerves and courage, and not the man who is subject to fits of
passion and discontent. For in the same degree in which a man's mind is
nearer to freedom from all passion, in the same degree also is it nearer
to strength: and as the sense of pain is a characteristic of weakness,
so also is anger. For he who yields to pain and he who yields to anger,
both are wounded and both submit.
 But if thou wilt, receive also a tenth present from the leader
of the Muses (Apollo), and it is this- that to expect bad men not to do
wrong is madness, for he who expects this desires an impossibility. But
to allow men to behave so to others, and to expect them not to do thee
any wrong, is irrational and tyrannical.
19. There are four principal aberrations of the superior faculty against
which thou shouldst be constantly on thy guard, and when thou hast detected
them, thou shouldst wipe them out and say on each occasion thus: this thought
is not necessary: this tends to destroy social union: this which thou art
going to say comes not from the real thoughts; for thou shouldst consider
it among the most absurd of things for a man not to speak from his real
thoughts. But the fourth is when thou shalt reproach thyself for anything,
for this is an evidence of the diviner part within thee being overpowered
and yielding to the less honourable and to the perishable part, the body,
and to its gross pleasures.
20.  Thy aerial part and all the fiery parts which are mingled in thee,
though by nature they have an upward tendency, still in obedience to the
disposition of the universe they are overpowered here in the compound mass
(the body). And also the whole of the earthy part in thee and the watery,
though their tendency is downward, still are raised up and occupy a position
which is not their natural one. In this manner then the elemental parts
obey the universal, for when they have been fixed in any place perforce
they remain there until again the universal shall sound the signal for
 Is it not then strange that thy intelligent part only should
be disobedient and discontented with its own place? And yet no force is
imposed on it, but only those things which are conformable to its nature:
still it does not submit, but is carried in the opposite direction. For
the movement towards injustice and intemperance and to anger and grief
and fear is nothing else than the act of one who deviates from nature.
And also when the ruling faculty is discontented with anything that happens,
then too it deserts its post: for it is constituted for piety and reverence
towards the gods no less than for justice. For these qualities also are
comprehended under the generic term of contentment with the constitution
of things, and indeed they are prior to acts of justice.
21. He who has not one and always the same object in life, cannot be
one and the same all through his life. But what I have said is not enough,
unless this also is added, what this object ought to be. For as there is
not the same opinion about all the things which in some way or other are
considered by the majority to be good, but only about some certain things,
that is, things which concern the common interest; so also ought we to
propose to ourselves an object which shall be of a common kind (social)
and political. For he who directs all his own efforts to this object, will
make all his acts alike, and thus will always be the
22. Think of the country mouse and of the town mouse, and of the alarm
and trepidation of the town mouse.
23. Socrates used to call the opinions of the many by the name of Lamiae,
bugbears to frighten children.
24. The Lacedaemonians at their public spectacles used to set seats
in the shade for strangers, but themselves sat down
25. Socrates excused himself to Perdiccas for not going to him, saying,
It is because I would not perish by the worst of all ends, that is, I would
not receive a favour and then be unable to return it.
26. In the writings of the Ephesians there was this precept, constantly
to think of some one of the men of former times who practised
27. The Pythagoreans bid us in the morning look to the heavens that
we may be reminded of those bodies which continually do the same things
and in the same manner perform their work, and also be reminded of their
purity and nudity. For there is no veil over a star.
28. Consider what a man Socrates was when he dressed himself in a skin,
after Xanthippe had taken his cloak and gone out, and what Socrates said
to his friends who were ashamed of him and drew back from him when they
saw him dressed thus.
29. Neither in writing nor in reading wilt thou be able to lay down
rules for others before thou shalt have first learned to obey rules thyself.
Much more is this so in life.
30. A slave thou art: free speech is not for thee.
31. And my heart laughed within.
32. And virtue they will curse, speaking harsh words.
33. To look for the fig in winter is a madman's act: such is he who looks
for his child when it is no longer allowed.
34. When a man kisses his child, said Epictetus, he should whisper
to himself, "To-morrow perchance thou wilt die."- But those are words of
bad omen.- "No word is a word of bad omen," said Epictetus, "which expresses
any work of nature; or if it is so, it is also a word of bad omen to speak
of the ears of corn being reaped."
35. The unripe grape, the ripe bunch, the dried grape, all are changes,
not into nothing, but into something which exists not
36. No man can rob us of our free will.
37. Epictetus also said, A man must discover an art (or rules) with respect
to giving his assent; and in respect to his movements he must be careful
that they be made with regard to circumstances, that they be consistent
with social interests, that they have regard to the value of the object;
and as to sensual desire, he should altogether keep away from it; and as
to avoidance (aversion) he should not show it with respect to any of the
things which are not in our power.
38. The dispute then, he said, is not about any common matter, but
about being mad or not.
39. Socrates used to say, What do you want? Souls of rational men or
irrational?- Souls of rational men.- Of what rational men? Sound or unsound?-
Sound.- Why then do you not seek for them?- Because we have them.- Why
then do you fight and quarrel?